Apaches at war and peace: the Janos Presidio, 1750-1858 by William B. Griffen

By William B. Griffen

Apaches at warfare and Peace is the tale of the Chiricahua Apaches at the northern frontier of recent Spain from 1750 to 1858, specially these in the zone of the Janos presidio in northwestern Chihuahua. utilizing formerly untapped information in Spain, Mexico, and the us, William Griffen relates how Apache raids and different hostilities have been the norm until eventually Bernardo do Galvez, viceroy of latest Spain, inspired the Apaches to settle close to presidios. through 1790 a few Apaches have been in place of abode at Janos, and intermittent sessions of peace and clash ensued till Mexican independence introduced extra radical adjustments in Indian coverage (such because the nation of Sonora’s supply of bounties for Indian scalps). Griffen explores problems with altering Indian coverage, Indian-Mexican family members, and the access of the U.S. onto the scene after its invasion of Mexico.

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Some of Opler's informants (see p. 16, n. 4) stated that there was no difference between a raid or revenge attack, but many assaults reported at Janos and elsewhere were very small-scale raids to obtain an animal or two with little thought of vengeance. 26 Revenge, an ethical commitment to retaliate for the deaths of murdered relatives, was a religious act that bound a man to the larger complex of Apache values and ideals. It often demanded an elaborate preparation for meeting the enemy; a prebattle ceremony included religious ritual and symbolism, prayers for the success of the venture, dancing and pantomiming, and dramatized war and fighting.

9. The document reads: " . . porque antes de ablar el castellano los Apaches, los que fueron del establecimiento de Bavispe poseen el idioma opata . . e de 1834, Manuel E. Arvisu, [to] Exmo. Sor. Vice Gobor del Estado, Arispe (Sonora Collection). 10. See Henry F. Dobyns, Their Number Become Thinned: Native American Population Dynamics in Eastern North America (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1983), 213-35, 299. 11. John P. Wilson, "The Southern Apaches as Farmers, 1630-1870," in Reflections: Papers on Southwestern Culture History in Honor of Charles H.

Eve Ball (with Nora Henn and Lynda Sanchez), Indeh: An Apache Odyssey (Provo, Utah; Brigham Young University Press, 1980), 60. Page xiii PREFACE This is an account of Apaches at the Janos presidio and its jurisdiction, which extended well into southern New Mexico, during the late eighteenth and the first half of the nineteenth centuries. Janos was an extremely important Spanish and later Mexican presidio or fort in the defense of northwest Chihuahua and the closest to the Apache corridor in the eastern flank of the great chain of mountains known as the Western Sierra Madre.

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