Analogical Reasoning: Perspectives of Artificial by Mark Turner (auth.), David H. Helman (eds.)

By Mark Turner (auth.), David H. Helman (eds.)

In the previous few years, there was an important quantity of job within the research of analogy and metaphor. this is often partially as a result of an curiosity of synthetic intelligence researchers in simulating studying approaches utilizing analogy. It additionally arises from severe examinations of normal theories within the philosophy of language, with their built in literal/meta­ phoric contrast. This quantity involves contemporary formerly unpub­ lished paintings during this sector, with a selected emphasis upon the position of analogies in reasoning and, extra ordinarily, their position in inspiration and language. The papers are contributed by way of philosophers, desktop scientists, cognitive scientists and literary critics. Researchers in those fields whose concentration is the research of analogy and metaphor will locate a lot of curiosity during this quantity. those essays may also function an creation to a few of the key techniques taken within the research of analogy. As famous, this quantity brings jointly the paintings of researchers in different diverse disciplines. many of the ways keen on recognize to the knowledge of analogy are usually really diverse, although, the articles recommend a standard end. Analogy and metaphor pervade inspiration and language; their shut research hence constitutes a precious contribution to our figuring out of individuals. DAVID H. HELMAN Case Western Reserve college vii half I CONCEPTUAL AND express THEORIES OF ANALOGICAL realizing MARK TURNER different types AND ANALOGIES i need to pursue the subsequent claims: the way in which we categorize is helping clarify the way in which we realize an announcement as an analogy.

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Extra resources for Analogical Reasoning: Perspectives of Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Science, and Philosophy

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44 P. K. SAHA In (7), the ambiguity is caused by the lexical item "bank" (which can refer either to the edge of a river or to a financial institution); in (8), the scope of modification of "old" in the construction "Old men and women" is uncertain because it might or might not be modifying "women"; in (9) the derivational source of the phrase "flying planes" is uncertain because "flying" could be either a gerund or an adjectival. Metaphorical ambiguity is clearly different from these three types.

3 John Searle, "Metaphor," in his Expression and Meaning (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979),76-116. 4 John Searle, "The background," Ch. 5 in his Intentionality (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983). 5 Searle, "Metaphor," 107-108. 6 Searle, "The background," 149. 7 Paul Ricoeur, "The metaphorical process as cognition, imagination, and feeling," Critical Inquiry 5, no. 1 (1978), 159. 8 Mark Johnson, The Body in the Mind: The Bodily Basis of Meaning, Imagination, and Reason (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987).

Furthermore, the stylistic component should be viewed as having important links with the other components. The Base component, for example, creates the basic syntax of all sentences, and the stylistic component has to rely on the rules governing linear sequence. " This sequence is a matter of the surface style that Shakespeare created. In the basic metaphor (16), Nom 2 cannot precede Nom 1 because that would produce the ill-formed structures 50 P. K. SAHA (20)(a)*A serpent is a thankless child.

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