By Shamlal Mangray, Ronald A. DeLellis (auth.), Michael A. Blake, Giles Boland (eds.)
Imaging of the adrenal gland has made great development within the final decade as new applied sciences proceed to conform. Adrenal Imaging highlights the pertinent scientific and pathological details that underpins the actual interpretation and use of adrenal imaging. Written by way of a prestigious staff of overseas members, person chapters in Adrenal Imaging function a suitable and up to date reference of adrenal imaging findings, algorithms and strategies in CT, MR nuclear medication, intervention, and trauma. precis sections on the finish of every bankruptcy remove darkness from key instructing issues to augment retention.
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Extra info for Adrenal Imaging
Cancer 101:1537–1544 82. Bishop E, Eble JN, Cheng L et al. (2006) Adrenal myelolipomas show nonrandom X-chromosome inactivation in hematopoietic elements and fat: support for a clonal origin of myelolipomas. Am J Surg Pathol 30:838–843 83. Prevot S, Penna CT, Imbert J-C et al. (1996) Solitary fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland. Mod Pathol 9:1170–1174 84. Wenig B, Abbondanzo SL, Heffess C (1994) Epithelioid angiosarcoma of the adrenal glands. A clinicopathologic study of nine cases with discussion of implications of finding ‘‘epithelial-specific’’ markers.
They exhibit positivity for chromogranin proteins and synaptophysin, but synaptophysin is also present in a large proportion of adrenal cortical carcinomas. S-100 protein is restricted to the sustentacular cells and is particularly evident in those areas with a ‘‘Zellballen’’ pattern (Fig. 13B). Pheochromocytomas may also contain a large array of regulatory peptide products, including leu- and met-enkephalin, endorphins, ACTH, somatostatin, and calcitonin [66, 67]. The overproduction of these substances may give rise, in rare cases, to syndromes of hormone excess, including Cushing’s syndrome.
Secondary Hypofunction Adrenal cortical atrophy may be found in association with lesions primarily affecting the adenohypophysis or hypothalamus, leading to diminished S. A. DeLellis secretion of ACTH [12, 17]. The administration of exogenous corticosteroids will effect similar changes as a result of suppression of ACTH. The adrenals in secondary hypofunctional states are considerably smaller than normal, although the overall configurations of the glands are retained. Typically, the cortex is bright yellow owing to lipid accumulation in the cortical cells, the capsule is fibrotic, and the medulla is unaffected.